In 1912, independent producer Carl Laemmle, who had doggedly fought the MPPC (Edison’s Motion Picture Patent Company), was pivotal in forming the Universal Film Manufacturing Company, a distribution firm to release the output of his own Independent Motion Picture Company and several other independent and foreign firms.
By 1913, Laemmle had gained control of the new company, and in 1915 he opened Universal City, a studio north of Hollywood, forming the basis of a complex that still exists today. By that point, Universal was partially vertically integrated, combining production and distribution in the same firm.
Also in 1912, Adolph Zukor scored a tremendous success by importing and distributing Queen Elizabeth, a French feature starring Sarah Bernhardt. Zukor then formed Famous Players in Famous Plays to exploit the star system and prestigious literary adaptations. Famous Players would soon become part of the most powerful studio in Hollywood. Another step toward the studio system came in 1914, when W. W. Hodkinson banded eleven local distributors together into Paramount, the first national distributor devoted solely to features. Zukor was soon distributing his Famous Players films through Paramount.
Another feature-film company originated in 1914. The Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company was centered primarily around the films of former playwright Cecil B. De Mille. Lasky also distributed through Paramount. In 1916, Zukor took over Paramount, merged Famous Players in Famous Plays and the Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company into Famous Players-Lasky and made Paramount this new firm’s distribution subsidiary. This was another key move in fusing smaller American producers and distributors into larger, vertically integrated firms. Paramount soon controlled many of the most popular silent stars, including Gloria Swanson, Mary Pickford, and Douglas Fairbanks, as well as top directors like D. W. Grifth, Mack Sennett, and Cecil B. De Mille.
Other firms formed during the 1910s would be crucial in the industry. Sam, Jack, Albert and Harry Warner moved from exhibiting to distributing, founding Warner Bros. in 1913. By 1918, they began producing but remained a relatively small firm until the 1920s.
1920s: Rise of the Hollywood System
During the late 1910s, foreign audiences, who had been cut off from the Hollywood product during the war, marveled at how American films had changed. Aside from having appealing stars and splendid sets, they were fast-paced and stylistically polished. One reason for this appeal was that American filmmakers had gone on exploring the classical Hollywood style, linking technique to clear storytelling.
By 1917, filmmakers had worked out a system of formal principles that were standard in American filmmaking. That is what we know today as the Hollywood System, but it was already put into practice well before the 1910s.
The basic problem that confronted filmmakers early in the nickelodeon era was that the audiences could not understand the casual, spatial and temporal relations in films, so people were up to some discussion regarding visual narrative. Staging in depth could show the spatial relationships among elements. Intertitles could add narrative information beyond what the images conveyed. Closer views of the actors could suggest their emotions more precisely. Color, set design, and lighting could imply time of day, the milieu of the action, and so on. During these same years, camera tripods with swiveling heads were introduced and filmmakers now were able to tilt or pan and frame low angle or high angle.
As opposed to social or natural forces. Character psychology had not been particularly important in early films. Slapstick chases or brief melodramas depended more on physical action or familiar situations than character traits. In Hollywood cinema, in following a series of characters’ goals and accomplishments, the spectator could comprehend the action. Also, the camera was placed closer to the actor for emotional expressiveness, and the 9-foot line rule was introduced. This meant that the camera, instead of being 12 or 16 feet back, was places only 9 feet away, cutting just below the hips (medium shot).
As a result of a major focus on character, actors became famous and fans started wanting to know who where the people on screen they were falling in love with. There are two main reasons why screen actors hadn’t been credited before:
- Stage performers were embarrassed to be in film. Silent film was only considered pantomime. One of an actors’ main skills was their voice. They were afraid that appearing in films would ruin their reputation. Early film was also designed for the working class. Film was seen as only a step above carnivals and freak shows.
- Producers feared that actors would gain more prestige and power and demand more money.
The star system was the method of creating, promoting and exploiting stars in Hollywood films. Movie studios would select promising young actors and glamorise and create personas for them, often inventing new names and even new backgrounds. Examples of stars who went through the star system include Cary Grant (born Archie Leach), Joan Crawford (born Lucille Fay LeSueur), and Rock Hudson (born Roy Harold Scherer, Jr.)
Another important aspect of the Hollywood Star System was the stars’ ability to convey the myths and dreams of their society, such as the myth of the “self made man”, which for many viewers represented the belief that everyone has a chance of happiness in America.
Hollywood films usually intensify interest by presenting two interdependent plot lines. Almost in every one of these involves romance, which gets woven in with the protagonist’s quest to achieve a goal.
Sense of Closure
The classic Hollywood narrative is structured with an unmistakable beginning, middle and end, and generally there is a distinct resolution at the end. The plot arouses suspense through deadlines, escalating conflicts, and last-minute rescues, but there is always an ending to everything. Whether good or bad (usually good) the audience needs to feel closure when the protagonist achieves (or fails to achieve) his goal.
Invisible Editing Style
Time in classical Hollywood is continuous, since non-linearity calls attention to the illusory workings of the medium. The only permissible manipulation of time in this format is the flashback. It is mostly used to introduce a memory sequence of a character, e.g. Casablanca.
The way shots were put together to create the story was a powerful tool for filmmakers, but they had to deal with editing carefully in order not to lead to confusion. It is the beginning of the Continuity System, coined in 1917 with a base in narrative clarity being enhanced if the spectator understands how the shots relate to each other in space and time. This system involved three basic ways of joining shots: inter cutting, analytical editing, and contiguity editing, all strongly centered upon the human body.
The use of shot/reverse-shot editing for conversation situations had been rare in the early 1910s, but by 1917 it occurred at least once in virtually every film. Similarly common were cuts that alternated from shots of people looking at something to point-of-view shots revealing what they saw. Indeed, by 1917, the fundamental techniques of continuity editing, including adherence to the 180-degree rule, or axis of action, had been worked out.
More on editing here: 1920s-1940s: Hollywood Editing Style
The look of individual shots also changed. As we have seen in previous chapters, most early films were shot using flat, overall light, from either the sun or artificial lights or from a combination of both. During the mid-1910s, filmmakers experimented with effects lighting, that is, selective lighting over only part of the scene, motivated as coming from a specific source. The most influential film to include this technique was Cecil B. De Mille’s The Cheat, which utilized arc lamps derived from the theater.
A Bunch of Films
The Poor Little Rich Girl, Wild and Wooly, Broken Blossoms, The Last of the Mohicans, Within Our Gates, Way Down East, Orphans of the Storm, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, Safety Last!, Greed, Sherlock, Jr., The Thief of Bagdad, Ben-Hur, The Big Parade, The Gold Rush, The Black Pirate, The General, Flesh and the Devil, The Wind, and It.
1930s in Hollywood
The 1930s decade (and most of the 1940s as well) has been nostalgically labeled “The Golden Age of Hollywood”. While the boundaries are vague, the classical era is generally held to begin in 1927 with the release of The Jazz Singer. The 30s was also the decade of the sound and color revolutions and the advance of the ‘talkies’, and the further development of film genres (gangster films, musicals, newspaper-reporting films, historical biopics, social-realism films, lighthearted screwball comedies, westerns and horror to name a few). It was the era in which the silent period ended, with many silent film stars not making the transition to sound (e.g., Vilmy Banky, John Gilbert, and Norma Talmadge).
Most Hollywood pictures adhered closely to a genre in this period—Western, slapstick comedy, musical, animated cartoon, biopic (biographical picture)—and the same creative teams often worked on films made by the same studio. For instance, Cedric Gibbons and Herbert Stothart always worked on MGM films, Alfred Newman worked at Twentieth Century Fox for twenty years, Cecil B. DeMille‘s films were almost all made at Paramount, director Henry King‘s films were mostly made for Twentieth-Century Fox.
Another great achievement of American cinema during this era came through Walt Disney‘s animation. In 1937, Disney created the most successful film of its time, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs In the mid-to-late 1930s box office profits contracted considerably. Strong-willed directors like Howard Hawks, Alfred Hitchcock and Frank Capra battled the studios in order to achieve their artistic visions. The apogee of the studio system may have been the year 1939, which saw the release of such classics as The Wizard of Oz, Gone with the Wind, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Stagecoach,Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Destry Rides Again,Young Mr. Lincoln, Wuthering Heights, Only Angels Have Wings, Ninotchka, Beau Geste, Babes in Arms, Gunga Din, Goodbye, Mr. Chips, and The Roaring Twenties.
A Bunch of more Films
Among other films from the golden age period now considered classics, are: Casablanca, The Adventures of Robin Hood, It’s a Wonderful Life, It Happened One Night, King Kong, Citizen Kane, Swing Time, Some Like It Hot, A Night at the Opera, Sergeant York, All About Eve, The Maltese Falcon, The Searchers, Laura, North by Northwest, Morocco, Rebel Without a Cause, Rear Window, Double Indemnity, City Lights, Psycho, High Noon, Bringing Up Baby, Notorious, Singin’ in the Rain, Ben-Hur, Roman Holiday, From Here To Eternity, and On the Waterfront.
1940s: Decline of the Studio System
The United States came out of World War II a prosperous country. Workers had earned good money in military industries but had had little chance to spend it. Returning troops rejoined their spouses or married, ready to set up households and buy consumer goods. The birthrate, increasing during the war, skyrocketed, and the new generation was tagged the “baby boom”.
During the three years immediately after the war’s end, Hollywood experienced pivotal high points and low points. It was a time of transition into a period of de cline for the studio system, though no one could have predicted that in 1946. The burst of consumer spending after wartime austerity aided ticket sales, and the year set a box-office record: over $1.5 billion in admissions a figure that, adjusted for inflation, remains the record. Every week, between 80 and 90 million people went to movies, well over half the total population of 140 million. (In 2001, each week, about 25 million people, out of a population of over 280 million, went to the movies).
Nonetheless, despite promising box-office figures, Hollywood firms confronted serious problems over the next two years. In 1947, anticommunist investigations by the U.S. government (House Un-American Activities Committee – HUAC) targeted numerous studio personnel, and a legal decision that would help change the very structure of the industry was handed down in 1948. In September 1947, Republican J. Parnell Thomas chaired a HUAC hearing that set out to prove that the Screen Writers’ Guild was dominated by communists.
By now, the Studio System had changed into two different groups. ‘The Big Five’ or majors:
- Warner Bros.,
- RKO and
and ‘The Little Three’ or minors:
- Colombia and
- United Artists.
The decline of the studio system began in 1948 with the verdict in the antitrust case United States vs. Paramount Pictures, inc. This decision outlawed the practice of block booking and forced the studios to sell their theater chains. A lawsuit had already been filed in 1938 by the U.S Department of Justice, but it was settled with a consent decree in 1940, which allowed the government to reinstate the lawsuit if it had not seen a satisfactory level of compliance.
‘The Big Five’ suffered after the court decision. Because they didn’t have the assurance that their movies would be seen anymore, they had to cut back on productions and their list of stars, producers, directors and writers and made fewer movies. Paramount’s profits dropped from 20 million to 6 million dollars in one year.
Also, after the war, many Americans had enough money saved up to purchase homes and cars. Suburban housing sprang up, and many people now traveled by car to the city center. With small children, however, they had little inclination to make the long trip into town for a film. Thus, changing demographics contributed to the late-1940s slump in moviegoing.
But a lot of people profited from the end of the studio system. For instance: independent filmmakers and minor studios finally stood a chance and could distribute a movie without the eternal interference of ‘The Big Five’. ‘The Little Three’ became more successful as well. But soon enough the movie industry suffered a final blow that would change Hollywood forever: the rise of television.